Information technology to raise the level of Agricultural Mechanization
In 2004, China promulgated and implemented the Law on the Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization. In the past 12 years, the central policy of supporting agriculture and benefiting farmers has greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of the government, enterprises and farmers to develop agricultural mechanization. The enthusiasm of farmers for buying and using machines has continued to rise, forming a joint force to promote the development of agricultural mechanization and making agricultural mechanization in China possible. The level continued to grow. In 2007, it exceeded 40% for the first time, reaching 42.5%, and reached 61% in 2014.
China has put forward the strategic target of reaching 70% of agricultural mechanization level by 2020, but the level of Agricultural Mechanization in China is still lagging behind that in developed countries for 20-30 years on the whole, and the scale of agricultural machinery enterprises is small. The main products of agricultural machinery are small and medium-sized low-end, and the high-end intelligent machinery still mainly depends on imports. At present, the main problems in China's agricultural development are as follows: 1) Low labor productivity. According to the data released by FAO, in 2014, China's agricultural labor productivity was 166.6 US dollars per person, compared with 101,249.0 US dollars per person, 59,461.5 US dollars per person and 41,715.0 US dollars per person in the United States, France and Germany, respectively.
In 2014, the per capita labor burden of the United States, France and Germany was 145, 55 and 45 times that of China. The per capita production of grain and meat was 81, 39, 35 times and 53, 21 and 39 times that of China respectively. The date of receipt of contributions was 2016-06-16 revised: 2016-08-10 Foundation Project: Key Consulting and Research Projects of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (201). 5-XZ-17-01-01) Author's brief introduction: Luo Xiwen, male, Zhuzhou, Hunan Province, professor, doctoral supervisor, mainly engaged in agricultural mechanization, agricultural electrification and automation research. School of engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org. times. 2) The production cost is high. In 2012, China's rice production was 6 753 kg/hm2, with an output value of 17.76 million yuan/hm2 and a total cost of 83.33 million yuan/hm2, accounting for 70.79% of the output value, of which the labor cost accounted for 41.33%. 3) The land output rate is low. In 2014, China ranked 21, 13, 23, 50, 46 and 33 for grain, paddy, wheat, maize, soybean and sugarcane respectively.
4) The utilization rate of resources is low. If the pesticides are sprayed by traditional methods, only 25% to 50% of the pesticides can be used on the leaves of crops; less than 1% of the pesticides can be deposited on the pests and diseases, and less than 0.03% of the pesticides can be used as insecticides. 5) The international competitiveness is not strong. Because of the high production cost of China's agricultural products, the market prices of rice, wheat, corn, soybean, grain, sugar and beef and mutton are higher than the CIF of foreign products, which is not conducive to the competition of China's agricultural products in the international market. The low level of Agricultural Mechanization in China is one of the fundamental reasons for the above problems. Improving the level of agricultural mechanization with information technology is an important way to solve the above problems.
5) Agricultural machinery informationization refers to the use of modern information technology such as mechanical electronics, optical physics, sensing control, information communication, Internet and so on to make agricultural machinery safer, more reliable and more efficient to complete various operations. Compared with traditional agricultural machinery, intelligent agricultural machinery has better ease of use, reliability and effectiveness, better interaction between human and machine, machine and material, can improve operation efficiency by 50%-60%, and can reduce operation cost . In the 1970s, modern microelectronics technology, instrument and control technology and information and communication technology were integrated into agricultural machinery and equipment in foreign countries. The development process of developed countries shows that agricultural mechanization, digitalization, automation and intelligence are the inevitable development trend of agricultural production.